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Difference of 5G communication from 3G and 4G networks and implementation based on PON technology

Not so long ago, the first 5G service was launched, which provides high-speed information transfer and minimizes delays. However, to understand how to implement it, you need to comprehend the network architecture and compare it with previous generations of 3G and 4G technologies
3G and 4G networks are based on the fact that each cell site is connected using microwaves or fiber optic to the core network. We can highlight the main differences between 3G and 4G networks from 5G:

  • 5G supports higher bandwidth and minimizes latency.
  • 5G requires many more connected cells to provide the desired performance.
  • 5G is becoming a disaggregated cloud architecture that brings some of the functions of the cellular network to the cloud.

To provide an efficient transport network, the use of PON-based networks is gaining popularity. This technology is already beginning to be used gradually to connect homes at gigabit and multi-gigabit speeds. Fiber optic PON has a high bandwidth, and allows you to quickly connect new 5G cells.

There are several versions of PON, which differ in bandwidth:

  • GPON. It has a bandwidth of 2.5 Gb/s, which provides broadband access, but it is not enough for 5G, only for 4G.
  • XGS-PON. It has a bandwidth of 10Gb/s, which allows for fast communication transmission and is enough for 5G.
  • XGS-PON technologies are already being actively deployed by operators around the world. And by 2025, it may become the dominant technology.

As you know, for 5G networks, performance characteristics are different from those of broadband communications, which are used in homes and corporate networks. The question arises as to how these services exist in one infrastructure without interfering with each other. There are three ways to interact:

  • Launching separate PON networks and using external objects.
  • Using the same fibers, but with different wavelengths and traffic.
  • Establish a fully converged infrastructure with traffic that is entirely on the same wavelength.

The massive introduction of 5G will allow information exchange with virtually no delay, as well as develop related technologies, such as the Internet of Things, and make them global.